Civic Literacy Curriculum

Section 1 | Principles of the American Republic


The two most important documents in the United States of America are the Declaration of Independence (from 1776) and the United States Constitution (from 1787). The Declaration of Independence lays out the core ideals behind and the political philosophy of the United States. The U.S. Constitution creates practical structures and rules both for the federal government and state governments.

Both the Declaration and U.S. Constitution can be read in less than an hour, and are essential reading for all citizens. Pocket versions of these texts are widely distributed by civic groups and are an especially convenient way to read them.

Section 1 Abridged Study Guide.

Section 1.1 The U.S. Constitution

Q1+2: Constitutional Government

The Constitution creates the form of government we have in the United States, which is a constitutional and federal republic.

Questions 1 & 2 Guide

Q3: What does the Constitution do?

Writing the Constitution was not an easy task. The Founding Fathers knew that the document they would create would shape the future of the nation. They needed to find the right balance between a federal government strong enough for the needs of a growing nation but that also protected decentralized local governance and individual rights. In setting up and defining the powers of the federal government, they created a balance of power by outlining three branches rather than just one. This prevented any one branch from taking control of the other two.

Question 3 Guide

Q4: The U.S. Constitution starts with the words “We the People.” What does “We the People” refer to?

It is always a good idea to start at the beginning. In this case, we begin with three simple words: We the People, the first three words in the U. S. Constitution. They are a reminder to all that this is a government built by the people, for the people. They are a guide, reminding every generation of Americans that it is the people who govern, not a king, queen or aristocracy.

Question 4 Guide

Q5: How are changes made to the Constitution?

The Founders wrote the Constitution to ensure that the government remained bound to its principles and promises, but they recognized that to be a lasting document, it would need to be able to change. Thus, they included Article V, which describes the process of making an “amendment”—a change or addition to the Constitution—in which Congress proposes an amendment and the states ratify it.

Question 5 Guide

Q7: How many amendments does the Constitution have?

The Founders recognized that their Constitution, while carefully crafted, may need to be modified at times, and thus made it possible to change it through the Article V amendment process, which has been used 27 times. 

Question 7 Guide

Section 1.2 The Bill of Rights

Q6: What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution that protect the basic rights of people living in the United States?

The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights and were ratified in 1791. These amendments limited federal power, both by protecting the rights of individuals and the states.

Question 6 Guide